Classification of. Retaining walls. • Gravity wall-Masonry or Plain concrete. • Cantilever retaining wall-RCC. (Inverted T and L). • Counterfort retaining wall- RCC. Types of reinforced concrete retaining walls are cantilever retaining walls and counterfort retaining walls. Functions and parts of these retaining walls. In this type of retaining wall, counterforts (cantilevers) are provided on the earth side between wall and footing to support the wall, which essentially spans as a.

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The brackets in this case are known as buttresses and by virtue of their location they are subjected to compressive forces.

Sometimes the cantilever wall is constructed in the form of L. Depending upon the height H of the wall the top width of stem can vary between mm to mm. Design of Isolated Column Footing.

## COUNTERFORT RETAINING WALLS

If the factor of safety against sliding works out to be less than 1. Monte Carlo method Search for additional papers on this topic. Showing of 32 references. Each of these components are designed as a cantilever. Wall with backfill levelled and subjected to uniform surcharge. The more the height of the wall, the closer should be the spacing of counterforts. Counterfort Retaining Walls When the height of the retaining wall to be provided exceeds 6 to 7m, counterfort retaining wall prove to be economical.

This is shown in pressure diagram in Fig. Wall retaining partly submerged backfill: Due to buoyancy the weight of submerged soil will be less and its repose will also be much less.

Monte Carlo method First-order reliability method. Wall retaining backfill in slope. Let the intensity of surcharge load per unit area be w. From This Paper Figures, tables, and topics from this paper. The size of the wall is so kept that there is no tensile stress developed at any section of the wall under any condition of loading. The maximum and minimum pressure are given by.

Cantilever Retaining Walls If the retaining wall is allowed to move towards the back fill, it will compress the soil and the pressure thus exerted is known as passive pressure. Besides loads due to retained material, the retaining wall may also be subjected to surcharged load due to automobile, rail road etc. If the requirements of stability are not satisfied, its dimension should be revised.

Reliability analysis of cantilever retaining walls. How well do we know what we are doing? The stability of the wall is partially provided by the weight of earth on the heel. The wall is so proportioned that the dead weight of the wall provides required stability against the thrust exerted by the backfill including surcharge if any. Hence total lateral earth pressure at the base of wall is given by.

## Reliability Analysis of Counterfort Retaining Walls

The sliding tendency is resisted counterfrt the frictional resistance between the base of the wall and the soil underneath. Design of One Way Slabs. The lateral pressure due to the backfill and surcharge if any tends to overturn the retaining wall about its toe. Walls of a building Simulation. If the water table is such that the retained soil remain fully submerged, in such a case the saturated soil results in increasing the weight of the backfill, decreases the angle of repose of the soil which ultimately amounts to increase in pressure on the wall.

Design of RCC footing for Wall. To meet this requirement the resultant of the sum of all vertical forces and the horizontal active pressure should cut the base of the wall within the middle third.

The pressure thus developed is termed as soil earth pressure. In this case wall has only two components i. Based on the method of achieving stability, retaining walls are ciunterfort into the following types: Design of Lintel with Sunshade. Let the backfill be moist or dry up to a depth h 1 below the top of wall and let the backfill below this depth i.

Prior to start of structural design of a retaining retainong it is necessary to adopt some tentative dimensions for different components of the wall.

Before proceeding with the structural design it is necessary to ensure that the preliminary dimensions assumed for reraining various components of the wall will render it safe against above referred types of failures. Commonly adopted proportions for wall components are as under: The backfill may be horizontal i.

### Figure 3 from Reliability Analysis of Counterfort Retaining Walls – Semantic Scholar

Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental…. These walls are constructed in brick masonry, stone masonry or plain cement concrete and it is shown in Fig. It is a common practice to neglect the retainning resistance of the soil in front of the toe of the wall in this check. Vounterfort overturning moment is stabilized by the weight of wall and the weight of the soil above the heel slab the weight of soil over the toe is neglected.

The pressure mainly depends upon the type of backfill material and the height of wall. Wall retaining partly submerged backfill.

References Publications referenced by this paper. The counterforts are provided behind the wall on the backfill side and are subjected to tensile forces. In case the water table does not rise up to full height of retaining wall, this will result in a situation where the soil is partially submerged and partly dry.